## PHP Operator

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In this tutorial you will learn about **PHP operator**, how to manipulate or perform the operations on variables and values using operators in PHP.

An operator takes at least one qualities, which are known as operands, and performs task on them, for example, including them together.

## **What is ** **PHP** **Operator**

Operators are symbols that tell the PHP processor to perform certain actions. For example, the addition (+) symbol is an operator that tells PHP to add two variables or values, while the greater-than (>) symbol is an operator that tells PHP to compare two values.

## Types of operators

The following lists describe the different operators used in PHP.

### **PHP Arithmetic Operators**

The arithmetic operators are used to perform common arithmetical operations, such as addition, subtraction, multiplication etc. Here’s a complete list of PHP’s arithmetic operators:

Operator Description

+ Addition $x + $y Sum of $x and $y

– Subtraction $x – $y Difference of $x and $y.

* Multiplication $x * $y Product of $x and $y.

/ Division $x / $y Quotient of $x and $y

% Modulus $x % $y Remainder of $x divided by $y

The following example will show you these arithmetic operators in action:

```
Example
<?php
$x = 10;
$y = 4;
echo($x + $y); // 0utputs: 14
echo($x - $y); // 0utputs: 6
echo($x * $y); // 0utputs: 40
echo($x / $y); // 0utputs: 2.5
echo($x % $y); // 0utputs: 2
?>
```

### **PHP Assignment Operators**

The assignment operators are used to assign values to variables.

Operator Description Example Is The Same As

= Assign $x = $y $x = $y

+= Add and assign $x += $y $x = $x + $y

-= Subtract and assign $x -= $y $x = $x – $y

*= Multiply and assign $x *= $y $x = $x * $y

/= Divide and assign quotient $x /= $y $x = $x / $y

%= Divide and assign modulus $x %= $y $x = $x % $y

The following example will show you these assignment operators in action:

```
Example
<?php
$x = 10;
echo $x; // Outputs: 10
$x = 20;
$x += 30;
echo $x; // Outputs: 50
$x = 50;
$x -= 20;
echo $x; // Outputs: 30
$x = 5;
$x *= 25;
echo $x; // Outputs: 125
$x = 50;
$x /= 10;
echo $x; // Outputs: 5
$x = 100;
$x %= 15;
echo $x; // Outputs: 10
?>
```

### **PHP Comparison Operators**

The comparison operators are used to compare two values in a Boolean fashion.

Operator Name Example Result

== Equal $x == $y True if $x is equal to $y

=== Identical $x === $y True if $x is equal to $y, and they are of the same type

!= Not equal $x != $y True if $x is not equal to $y

<> Not equal $x <> $y True if $x is not equal to $y

!== Not identical $x !== $y True if $x is not equal to $y, or they are not of the same type

< Less than $x < $y True if $x is less than $y

Greater than $x > $y True if $x is greater than $y

= Greater than or equal to $x >= $y True if $x is greater than or equal to $y

<= Less than or equal to $x <= $y True if $x is less than or equal to $y

The following example will show you these comparison operators in action:

```
Example
<?php
$x = 25;
$y = 35;
$z = "25";
var_dump($x == $z); // Outputs: boolean true
var_dump($x === $z); // Outputs: boolean false
var_dump($x != $y); // Outputs: boolean true
var_dump($x !== $z); // Outputs: boolean true
var_dump($x < $y); // Outputs: boolean true
var_dump($x > $y); // Outputs: boolean false
var_dump($x <= $y); // Outputs: boolean true
var_dump($x >= $y); // Outputs: boolean false
?>
```

### **PHP Increment and Decrement Operators**

The increment/decrement operators are used to increment/decrement a variable’s value.

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Operator Name Effect

++$x Pre-increment Increments $x by one, then returns $x

$x++ Post-increment Returns $x, then increments $x by one

–$x Pre-decrement Decrements $x by one, then returns $x

$x– Post-decrement Returns $x, then decrements $x by one

The following example will show you these increment and decrement operators in action:

```
Example
<?php
$x = 10;
echo ++$x; // Outputs: 11
echo $x; // Outputs: 11
$x = 10;
echo $x++; // Outputs: 10
echo $x; // Outputs: 11
$x = 10;
echo --$x; // Outputs: 9
echo $x; // Outputs: 9
$x = 10;
echo $x--; // Outputs: 10
echo $x; // Outputs: 9
?>
```

### **PHP Logical Operators**

The logical operators are typically used to combine conditional statements.

Operator Name Example Result

and And $x and $y True if both $x and $y are true

or Or $x or $y True if either $x or $y is true

xor Xor $x xor $y True if either $x or $y is true, but not both

&& And $x && $y True if both $x and $y are true

|| Or $x || $y True if either $$x or $y is true

! Not !$x True if $x is not true

The following example will show you these logical operators in action:

```
Example
<?php
$year = 2014;
// Leap years are divisible by 400 or by 4 but not 100
if(($year % 400 == 0) || (($year % 100 != 0) && ($year % 4 == 0))){
echo "$year is a leap year.";
} else{
echo "$year is not a leap year.";
}
?>
```

### **PHP String Operators**

There are two operators which are specifically designed for strings.

Operator Description Example Result

. Concatenation $str1 . $str2 Concatenation of $str1 and $str2

.= Concatenation assignment $str1 .= $str2 Appends the $str2 to the $str1

The following example will show you these string operators in action:

```
Example
<?php
$x = "Hello";
$y = " World!";
echo $x . $y; // Outputs: Hello World!
$x .= $y;
echo $x; // Outputs: Hello World!
?>
```

### **PHP Array Operators**

The array operators are used to compare arrays:

Operator Name

+ Union $x + $y Union of $x and $y

== Equality $x == $y True if $x and $y have the same key/value pairs

=== Identity $x === $y True if $x and $y have the same key/value pairs in the same order and of the same types

!= Inequality $x != $y True if $x is not equal to $y

<> Inequality $x <> $y True if $x is not equal to $y

!== Non-identity $x !== $y True if $x is not identical to $y

The following example will show you these array operators in action:

```
Example
"Red", "b" => "Green", "c" => "Blue");
$y = array("u" => "Yellow", "v" => "Orange", "w" => "Pink");
$z = $x + $y; // Union of $x and $y
var_dump($z);
var_dump($x == $y); // Outputs: boolean false
var_dump($x === $y); // Outputs: boolean false
var_dump($x != $y); // Outputs: boolean true
var_dump($x <> $y); // Outputs: boolean true
var_dump($x !== $y); // Outputs: boolean true
?>
```

### **PHP Spaceship Operator PHP 7**

PHP 7 introduces a new spaceship operator (<=>) which can be used for comparing two expressions. It is also known as combined comparison operator.

The spaceship operator returns 0 if both operands are equal, 1 if the left is greater, and -1 if the right is greater. It basically provides three-way comparison as shown in the following table:

Operator <=> Equivalent

$x < $y ($x <=> $y) === -1

$x <= $y ($x <=> $y) === -1 || ($x <=> $y) === 0

$x == $y ($x <=> $y) === 0

$x != $y ($x <=> $y) !== 0

$x >= $y ($x <=> $y) === 1 || ($x <=> $y) === 0

$x > $y ($x <=> $y) === 1

The following example will show you how spaceship operator actually works:

```
Example
<?php
// Comparing Integers
echo 1 <=> 1; // Outputs: 0
echo 1 <=> 2; // Outputs: -1
echo 2 <=> 1; // Outputs: 1
// Comparing Floats
echo 1.5 <=> 1.5; // Outputs: 0
echo 1.5 <=> 2.5; // Outputs: -1
echo 2.5 <=> 1.5; // Outputs: 1
// Comparing Strings
echo "x" <=> "x"; // Outputs: 0
echo "x" <=> "y"; // Outputs: -1
echo "y" <=> "x"; // Outputs: 1
?>
```

Read our next article to know PHP database connection

**Source credit : **https://www.tutorialrepublic.com/php-tutorial/php-operators.php